Kilder om kosthold og helse

Kildene om kosthold og helse er samlet her

6. Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012 [Internet]. Vol. 5, Nordic Nutrition
Recommendations 2012. 2012. 1–3 p. Available from: http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:norden:org:diva-2561

7. Willett W, Rockström J, Loken B, Springmann M, Lang T, Vermeulen S, et al. Food in the Anthropocene: the EAT-Lancet Commission on healthy diets from sustainable food systems. Lancet (London, England). 2019;
8. Sælensminde K, Johansson L, Helleve A. Samfunnsgevinster av å følge Helsedirektoratets kostråd. 2016.
9. Afshin A, Sur PJ, Fay KA, Cornaby L, Ferrara G, Salama JS, et al. Health effects of dietary risks in 195 countries, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet. 2019;
10. Springmann M, Godfray HCJ, Rayner M, Scarborough P. Analysis and valuation of the health and climate change cobenets of dietary change.

34. Dinu M, Abbate R, Gensini GF, Casini A, So F. Vegetarian, vegan diets and multiple health outcomes: A systematic review with meta-analysis of observational studies. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2017;
35. Helsedirektoratet. Retningslinjer/forebygging-av-hjerte-og-karsykdom [Internet]. 2017.  Available from:  https://
http://www.helsedirektoratet.no/retningslinjer/forebygging-av-hjerte-og-karsykdom
36. Bonnema AL, Altschwager D, Thomas W, Slavin JL. The Effects of a Beef-Based Meal Compared to a Calorie Matched Bean-Based Meal on Appetite and Food Intake. J Food Sci. 2015;
37. Huang RY, Huang CC, Hu FB, Chavarro JE. Vegetarian Diets and Weight Reduction: a Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. J Gen Intern Med. 2016;
38. Kristensen MD, Bendsen NT, Christensen SM, Astrup A, Raben A. Meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans and peas) are more satiating than meals based on animal protein sources (veal and pork) – A randomized cross-over meal test study. Food Nutr Res. 2016;
39. Matportalen. Kostfiber [Internet]. [cited 2019 Feb 2]. Available from: https://www.matportalen.no/kosthold_og_helse/tema/naringsstoffer/kostfiber
40. Diabetesforbundet. Kostfiber [Internet]. [cited 2019 Feb 2]. Available from: https://www.diabetes.no/kosthold/hva-inneholder-maten/karbohydrater/fiber/
41. Clarys P, Deliens T, Huybrechts I, Deriemaeker P, Vanaelst B, De Keyzer W, et al. Comparison of nutritional quality of the vegan, vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian and omnivorous diet. Nutrients. 2014;
42. Sabaté J, Wien M. Vegetarian diets and childhood obesity prevention. Vol. 91, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2010. 216
43. Ask og Strindlund. Vegetarisk mat är bra – även för små barn. Lakartidningen [Internet]. 2014;(11).
44. NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC). Worldwide trends in diabetes since 1980: a pooled analysis of 751 population-based studies with 4·4 million participants. Lancet. 2016;
45. World Health Organization (WHO). Global Report on Diabetes. WHO Press. 2016.
46. Tabish SA. Is Diabetes Becoming the Biggest Epidemic of the Twenty-first Century? Int J Health Sci (Qassim). 2007;
47. Melina V, Craig W, Levin S. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Vegetarian Diets. J Acad Nutr Diet [Internet].  2016;116(12):1970–80.
48. Rinaldi S, Campbell EE, Fournier J, O’Connor C, Madill J. A Comprehensive Review of the Literature Supporting
Recommendations From the Canadian Diabetes Association for the Use of a Plant-Based Diet for Management of Type 2 Diabetes. Canadian Journal of Diabetes. 2016.
49. Introduction: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2018. Diabetes Care. 2017 Dec 8;41(Supplement 1):S1–2.
50. Pan A, Sun Q, Bernstein AM, Manson JE, Willett WC, Hu FB. Changes in red meat consumption and subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus three cohorts of US men and women. JAMA Intern Med. 2013;
51. Malik VS, Li Y, Tobias DK, Pan A, Hu FB. Dietary Protein Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in US Men and Women. Am J Epidemiol. 2016;183(8):715–28.
52. Diabetesforbundet. Hvordan redusere risikoen? [Internet]. [cited 2019 Jan 2]. Available from: https://www.diabetes.no/om-diabetes/redusere-risikoen/
53. Kahleova H, Klementova M, Herynek V, Skoch A, Herynek S, Hill M, et al. The Effect of a Vegetarian vs Conventional Hypocaloric Diabetic Diet on Thigh Adipose Tissue Distribution in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Study. J Am Coll Nutr. 2017;
54. Tantamango-Bartley Y, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Fan J, Fraser G. Vegetarian diets and the incidence of cancer in a low-risk population. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013;

55. Key TJ, Appleby PN, Crowe FL, Bradbury KE, Schmidt JA, Travis RC. Cancer in British vegetarians: Updated analyses of 4998 incident cancers in a cohort of 32,491 meat eaters, 8612 fish eaters, 18,298 vegetarians, and 2246 vegans. In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2014.
56. Craig, W.J. and Mangels AR. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Vegetarian Diets. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009;(109):1266–82.
57. Najjar RS, Moore CE, Montgomery BD. A defined, plant-based diet utilized in an outpatient cardiovascular clinic effectively treats  hypercholesterolemia and hypertension and reduces medications. Clin Cardiol. 2018;
58. Whitehead RD, Re D, Xiao D, Ozakinci G, Perrett DI. You are what you eat: Within-subject increases in fruit and vegetable consumption confer benecial skin-color changes. PLoS One. 2012;

Oppsummeringsartikler om vegetariske kostholdsmønstre

En oppsummering av 96 studier fra 2017 konkluderer med følgende:

«This comprehensive meta-analysis reports a significant protective effect of a vegetarian diet versus the incidence and/or mortality from ischemic heart disease (-25%) and incidence from total cancer (-8%). Vegan diet conferred a significant reduced risk (-15%) of incidence from total cancer.»

Kilde: Dinu M, Abbate R, Gensini GF, Casini A, Sofi F. Vegetarian, vegan diets and multiple health outcomes: A systematic review with meta-analysis of observational studies. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2017 Nov 22;57(17):3640-3649. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2016.1138447. Review. PubMed PMID: 26853923.

  • Melina V, Craig W, Levin S. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: vegetarian diets. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016;116:1970-1980
  • Springmann M, Godfray HCJ, Rayner M, Scarborough P. Analysis and valuation of the health and climate change cobenefits of dietary change. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Published online March 21, 2016.
  • Baljit Kaur, klinisk ernæringsfysiolog, M.Sc Drammen sykehus, Vestre Viken HF.  Helsefordeler og utfordringer ved vegankoster. Norsk tidsskrift for ernæring (NTFE)
  • Sara Ask, dietist, Åsa Strindlund, nutritionist. Vegetarisk mat är bra – även för små barn.  Läkartidningen. 2014;111:CMEA Läkartidningen 11/2014 Lakartidningen.se 2014-03-11
  • Craig WJ. Health effects of vegan diets. Am J Clin Nutr May 2009 vol. 89 no. 5 1627S1633S.  doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736N 
  • Fraser GE. Vegetarian diets: What do we know of their effects on common chronic diseases? Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(5):1607S-12S.
  • Key TJ, Appleby PN, Rosell MS. Health effects of vegetarian and vegan diets. Proc Nutr Soc. 2006;65:35-41.
  • Key TJ, Davey GK, Appleby PN. Health benefits of a vegetarian diet. Proc Nutr Soc. 1999;58:271–5.