Plantebasert kosthold for sunnere hjerte

Forskning om plantebasert kosthold og barn

«Godt sammensatt vegetarkost kan dekke behovet for næringsstoffer for barn i alle aldre.»

Helsedirektoratet (1) Helsedirektoratet. Barn og vegetarkost. Sitert 24.11.2015

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Et lite utvalg av forskning om plantebasert kosthold og helse hos barn

Les også:

Plantebasert kosthold mot hjertesykdom hos overvektige barn

Plantebasert kosthold for sunnere hjerte
Plantebasert kosthold reduserer risiko for hjerte- og karsykdom hos overvektige barn

Omlegging til 100 % plantebasert (vegansk) kosthold kan redusere risiko for hjerte- og karsykdom både hos overvektige barn og deres foreldre, ifølge en ny randomisert studie publisert online i tidsskriftet Journal of Pediatrics.

Forskere ved Cleveland Clinic randomiserte 28 barn og én av deres foreldre til enten å spise en helt plantebasert kost (PB – for plantebasert) som består av frukt, grønnsaker, fullkorn, nøtter, frø og belgvekster, og uten tilsatt fett, eller til å spise i henhold til retningslinjene fra American Heart Association (AHA). Studien varte 4 uker. Barna i studien hadde overvekt og høye nivåer av blodlipider (kolesterol).

Totalt 17 ulike parametere/risikofaktorer/risikomarkører for hjerte- og karsykdom ble registrert: blodlipider, vekt, midjemål, blodtrykk osv. I den plantebaserte gruppen påviste man reduserte (gunstigere) verdier for ni parametere hos barn og syv parametere hos de voksne. AHA-gruppen viste reduserte verdier av henholdsvis fire og to parametere.

«PB and the AHA in both children and  potentially beneficial changes from baseline in risk factors for CVD. Future larger, long-term randomized trials with easily accessible PB foods will further define the role of the PB in preventing CVD»

Macknin M, Kong T, Weier A, et al. Plant-based, no-added-fat or American Heart Association diets: impact on cardiovascular risk in obese children with hypercholesterolemia and their parents. J Pediatr. Published online on February 12, 2015.

Lenke til studie er her

Bakgrunnen for studien:

«There is a need to have effective lifestyle modifications that target the growing group of obese children with dyslipidemia.The beneficial health effects of plant-based (PB) diets in adults are known. Studies have suggested that a low-fat, vegandiet (no animal products) may promote weight loss, lower body mass index (BMI), and improve lipoprotein profiles and insulin sensitivity and possibly prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) (1-5). Those who follow a vegetarian diet (no animal products except for dairy and/or eggs) typically have lower cholesterol levels and a lower risk for coronary heart disease than nonvegetarians (6-8). Additionally, vegetarian diets have been shown to not only prevent but reverse heart disease in adults (9,1).»
Kilder om plantebasert kosthold for barn
  • Vegetarisk mat är bra – även för små barn. Sara Ask, dietist, Åsa Strindlund, nutritionist. Läkartidningen. 2014;111:CMEA Läkartidningen 11/2014 Lakartidningen.se 2014-03-11 (uppdaterad 2014-09-22)
  • Amit M. Canadian Paediatric Society; Community Paediatrics Committee. Position statement (CP 2010-02): Vegetarian diets in children and adolescents. Paediatr Child Health. 2010;15(5):303-14.
  • Larsson CL, Johansson GK. Dietary intake and nutritional status of young vegans and omnivores in Sweden. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76:100-6.
  • Perry CL, McGuire MT, Neumark–Sztainer D, et al. Adolescent vegetarians: how well do their dietary patterns meet the healthy people 2010 objectives? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002;156(5):431-7.
  • Livsmedelsverket. Vegetarisk mat till barn.
  • Hebbelinck M, Clarys P, De Malsche A. Growth, development, and physical fitness of Flemish vegetarian children, adolescents and young adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70: 579S-85S.
  • Leung SS, Lee RH, Sung RY, et al. Growth and nutrition of Chinese vegetarian children in Hong Kong. J Paediatr Child Health. 2001;37:247-53.
  • Nathan I, Hackett AF, Kirby S. A longitudinal study of the growth of matched pairs of vegetarian and omnivorous children, aged 7–11 years, in the north-west of England. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1997;51:20-5.
  • O’Connell J, Dibley M, Sierra J, et al. Growth of vegetarian children: the Farm study. Pediatrics. 1989;84:475-81.
  • Rosell M, Appleby P, Key T. Height, age at menarche, body weight and body mass index in life-long vegetarians. Public Health Nutr. 2005;8(7):870-5.
  • Yen CE, Yen CH, Huang MC, et al. Dietary intake and nutritional status of vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children and their par-ents in Taiwan. Nutr Res. 2008;28(7):430-6.
  • Hörnell A, Lagström H, Lande B, et al. Protein intake from 0 to 18 years: a systematic literature review for the 5th Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. Food Nutr Res. 2013;57. doi: 10.3402/fnr.v57i0.21083
  • Günther AL, Remer T, Kroke A, et al. Early protein intake and later obesity risk: which protein sources at which time points throughout infancy and childhood are important for body mass index and body fat percentage at 7 y of age? Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86:1765-72.
  • Bhatia J, Greer F; American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition. Use of soy protein-based formulas in infant feeding. Pediatrics. 2008;121(5):1062-8.

Flere

  • Rosell MS, Lloyd-Wright Z, Appleby PN, et al. Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma in British meat-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82:327-34.
  • Rasmussen S, Fernhoff T, Scanlon K. Vitamin B12 deficiency in children and adolescents. J Pediatr. 2001;138(1):10-7.
  • Allen LH. B Vitamins in breast milk: relative importance of maternal status and intake, and effects on infant status and function. Adv Nutr. 2012;3:362-9.
  • Guez S, Chiarelli G, Menni F, et al. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in an exclusively breastfed 5-month-old Italian infant born to a mother receiving multivitamin supplementation during pregnancy. BMC Pediatr. 2012;12:85.
  • Laskowska-Klita T, Chełchowska M, Ambroszkiewicz J, et al. The effect of vegetarian diet on selected essential nutrients in children. Med Wieku Rozwoj. 2011;15(3):318-25.
  • Gorczyca D, Prescha A, Szeremeta K, et al. Iron status and dietary iron intake of vegetarian children from Poland. Ann Nutr Metab. 2013;62(4):291-7.
  • Lönnerdal B. Nutritional and physiologic significance of human milk proteins. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77(6):1537S-43S.
  • Livsmedelsverket. Tungmetaller och mineraler i livsmedel för spädbarn och småbarn. Del 3: Risk- och nyttohantering. Uppsala: Livsmedelsverket; 2013. Rapport 1.
  • Sabate J, Wien M: Vegetarian diets and childhood obesity prevention. Am J Clin Nutr 2010, 91(5):1525S-1529S;
  • Sanders TA: Essential fatty acid requirements of vegetarians in pregnancy, lactation, and infancy. Am J Clin Nutr 1999, 70(3 Suppl):555S-559S;
  • Messina V, Mangels AR: Considerations in planning vegan diets: children. J Am Diet Assoc 2001, 101(6):661-669;
  • World Health Organization (WHO): Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding.  2003;
  • Hanson LA: Human milk and host defence: immediate and long-term effects. Acta Paediatr Suppl 1999, 88(430):42-46;
  • World Health Organization (WHO): Evidence on the long-term effects of breastfeeding: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Geneva: World Health Organization 2007:57;
  • Ogra PL, Greene HL: Human milk and breast feeding: an update on the state of the art. Pediatr Res 1982, 16(4 Pt 1):266-271;
  • Akobeng AK, Ramanan AV, Buchan I, Heller RF: Effect of breast feeding on risk of coeliac disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Arch Dis Child 2006, 91(1):39-43

Oversiktssider og nettsider til ulike organisasjoner og fagpaneler

Vegan Nutrition in Pregnancy and Childhood. Reed Mangels, PhD, RD and Katie Kavanagh-Prochaska, Dietetic Intern Vegetarian Resource Group
Description: Summary of considerations for the vegan diet during pregnancy, breastfeeding and childhood. Includes nutrient needs and meal planning tips. Available in electronic format only.

Melanie Wilson. Eating Wisely: Raising a Vegetarian Child New Beginnings, Vol. 17 No. 4 July-August 2000,pp. 131-133, 151
Description: Practical information on vegetarian children. Includes information on sources of specific nutrients

Vegan Diets for Children. Vegetarian Nutrition Dietetic Practice Group, Issues in Vegetarian Dietetics. Carol M. Coughlin, RD
Summary: Nutritional considerations for vegan infants, children, and adolescents.

-Vegetarian Resource Group. Nutrition
Description: Resources on feeding vegan children, healthy fast food for preschoolers,
school lunch, and vegan infants. Also includes food guides for infants and children.

Kids’ Health for Parents, The Nemours Foundation
Description:Pros and cons of a vegetarian diet for children, advice for specific age groups including infants and toddlers.

Teen Vegetarians-Facts for Parents. University of Maine System. UMaine Cooperative Extension.
Description: Includes information for parents about vegetarian diets for teenagers.

Kids’ Health for Parents. The Nemours Foundation
Description:Information for parents on vegetarian diets for adolescents.

Vegetarian Nutrition for Teenagers. The Vegetarian Resource Group

-Vegetarian Society of the United Kingdom.  A Parent and Teenager Guide to Vegetarianism
Description: Information on vegetarian children and teenagers including a suggested food guide.