Kilder om fisk og helse

Kilder om miljøgifter i fisk, ost og annen mat i norsk kosthold:

  1. Micha R, Michas G, Mozaffarian D. Unprocessed red and processed meats and risk of coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes–an updated review of the evidence. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2012;14(6):515-524. doi:10.1007/s11883-012-0282-8
  2. Rodriguez C, McCullough ML, Mondul AM, et al. Meat consumption among Black and White men and risk of prostate cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15(2):211-216. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-05-0614
  3. World Health Organization. Q&A on the carcinogenicity of the consumption of red meat and processed meat. World Health Organization. Published October 26, 2015. Accessed October 3, 2020.
  4. Saenz RA, Hethcote HW, Gray GC. Confined animal feeding operations as amplifiers of influenza.Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2006;6(4):338-346. doi:10.1089/vbz.2006.6.338
  5. Meng G, Human Rights Watch (Organization). Cultivating Fear: The Vulnerability of Immigrant Farmworkers in the US to Sexual Violence and Sexual Harassment. New York, N.Y: Human Rights Watch.
  6. Hribar C. Understanding Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations and Their Impact on Communities. National Association of Local Boards of Health; 2010. Accessed September 26, 2020.
  7. American Heart Association. Fish and Omega-3 Fatty Acids. American Heart Association. Published March 23, 2017. Accessed March 20, 2021.
  8. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 8 Defining Characteristics of the Mediterranean Diet. eat right PRO. Published February 10, 2016. Accessed March 20, 2021.
  9. Make it Mediterranean. Accessed March 20, 2021.
  10. Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. Healthy Eating Plate . Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. Published 2011. Accessed March 20, 2021.
  11. Estruch R, Ros E, Salas-Salvadó J, et al. Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease with a Mediterranean Diet Supplemented with Extra-Virgin Olive Oil or Nuts. N Engl J Med. 2018;378(25):e34. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1800389
  12. Salas-Salvadó J, Bulló M, Babio N, et al. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with the Mediterranean diet: results of the PREDIMED-Reus nutrition intervention randomized trial. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(1):14-19. doi:10.2337/dc10-1288
  13. Hu FB, Bronner L, Willett WC, et al. Fish and omega-3 fatty acid intake and risk of coronary heart disease in women. JAMA. 2002;287(14):1815-1821. doi:10.1001/jama.287.14.1815
  14. Calder PC. n-3 Fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: evidence explained and mechanisms explored. Clin Sci. 2004;107(1):1-11. doi:10.1042/CS20040119
  15. Baker EJ, Miles EA, Burdge GC, Yaqoob P, Calder PC. Metabolism and functional effects of plant-derived omega-3 fatty acids in humans. Prog Lipid Res. 2016;64:30-56. doi:10.1016/j.plipres.2016.07.002
  16. Goyens PLL, Mensink RP. Effects of alpha-linolenic acid versus those of EPA/DHA on cardiovascular risk markers in healthy elderly subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006;60(8):978-984. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602408
  17. Goyens PLL, Spilker ME, Zock PL, Katan MB, Mensink RP. Conversion of alpha-linolenic acid in humans is influenced by the absolute amounts of alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid in the diet and not by their ratio. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;84(1):44-53. doi:10.1093/ajcn/84.1.44
  18. Gibson RA, Muhlhausler B, Makrides M. Conversion of linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), with a focus on pregnancy, lactation, and the first 2 years of life. Matern Child Nutr. 2011;7 Suppl 2:17-26. doi:10.1111/j.1740-8709.2011.00299.x
  19. Egert S, Kannenberg F, Somoza V, Erbersdobler HF, Wahrburg U. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid, EPA, and DHA have differential effects on LDL fatty acid composition but similar effects on serum lipid profiles in normolipidemic humans. J Nutr. 2009;139(5):861-868. doi:10.3945/jn.108.103861
  20. Blasbalg TL, Hibbeln JR, Ramsden CE, Majchrzak SF, Rawlings RR. Changes in consumption of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the United States during the 20th century. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93(5):950-962. doi:10.3945/ajcn.110.006643
  21. Cleveland Clinic. Plant Sources of Omega-3s. Cleveland Clinic. Published May 24, 2019. Accessed March 21, 2021.
  22. Hollenbeck CB. An introduction to the nutrition and metabolism of choline. Nerv Syst Agents Med Chem. 2012;12(2):100-113. doi:10.2174/187152412800792689
  23. Ufnal M, Zadlo A, Ostaszewski R. TMAO: A small molecule of great expectations. Nutrition. 2015;31(11-12):1317-1323. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2015.05.006
  24. Tang WHW, Wang Z, Levison BS, et al. Intestinal microbial metabolism of phosphatidylcholine and cardiovascular risk. N Engl J Med. 2013;368(17):1575-1584. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1109400
  25. Wang Z, Tang WHW, Buffa JA, et al. Prognostic value of choline and betaine depends on intestinal microbiota-generated metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide. Eur Heart J. 2014;35(14):904-910. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehu002
  26. WHO. Mercury and health. World Health Organization. Published March 31, 2017. Accessed March 21, 2021.
  27. Lim S, Ha M, Hwang S-S, Son M, Kwon H-J. Disparities in children’s blood lead and mercury levels according to community and individual socioeconomic positions. Int J Environ Res Public Health. . 2015;12(6):6232-6248. doi:10.3390/ijerph120606232
  28. Ferreira da Silva S, de Oliveira Lima M. Mercury in fish marketed in the Amazon Triple Frontier and Health Risk Assessment. Chemosphere. 2020;248:125989. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.125989
  29. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2020-2025. 9th ed. U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2020.
  30. Aune D, Giovannucci E, Boffetta P, et al. Fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease, total cancer, and all-cause mortality-a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Int J Epidemiol. 2017;46(3):1029-1056. doi:10.1093/ije/dyw319
  31. Miller V, Mente A, Dehghan M, et al. Fruit, vegetable, and legume intake, and cardiovascular disease and deaths in 18 countries (PURE): a prospective cohort study. Lancet. 2017;390(10107):2037-2049. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32253-5
  32. Afshin A, Micha R, Khatibzadeh S, Mozaffarian D. Consumption of nuts and legumes and risk of incident ischemic heart disease, stroke, and diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;100(1):278-288. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.076901
  33. Willcox DC, Scapagnini G, Willcox BJ. Healthy aging diets other than the Mediterranean: a focus on the Okinawan diet. Mech Ageing Dev. 2014;136-137:148-162. doi:10.1016/j.mad.2014.01.002
  34. Willcox DC, Willcox BJ, Todoriki H, Suzuki M. The Okinawan diet: health implications of a low-calorie, nutrient-dense, antioxidant-rich dietary pattern low in glycemic load. J Am Coll Nutr. 2009;28 Suppl:500S-516S.
  35. Kagawa Y. Impact of westernization on the nutrition of Japanese: Changes in physique, cancer, longevity and centenarians. Prev Med. 1978;7(2):205-217. doi:10.1016/0091-7435(78)90246-3
  36. Kopp W. How western diet and lifestyle drive the pandemic of obesity and civilization diseases. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2019;12:2221-2236. doi:10.2147/DMSO.S216791
  37. 3 reasons why superfoods can be dangerous.
  38. Helsedirektoratet. Kostholdsråd for befolkningen.
  39. Miljødirektoratet. Advarsler mot fisk og sjømat.
  40. EFSA, EUs organ for mat-trygghet. Risk for animal and human health related to the presence of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in feed and food